Copyright protection is only for those elements of any work by an author that are original and fixed in some tangible means. Generally, copyright protection is afforded to a work only if it will fit into one of these eight categories: literary work, musical work, dramatic work, choreographic work, pictorial, graphic and sculptural (PGS) work, audiovisual work, sound recordings, and architectural work.
In case of other categories of work like pre-existing material or work resulting from original authorship, copyright protection does not apply. Again, facts do not originate from authorship. They are, thus, “other works” that are not original, and, therefore not copyrightable. Ideas, principles, and concepts are specifically excluded from copyright protection.