The nationality or domicile of the author is relevant on the issue of the protectability of published works.  The reproduction rights of libraries depend upon publication of the work.  The term of protection under the Copyright Act for works made for hire is measured from the year of first publication or a term of 120 years from the year when the work was created, whichever expires first.  This is the same with anonymous or pseudonymous works.  All published works should have a notice of copyright containing the year of its first publication.  Mandatory deposit requirements under the Act apply only to published works.  Certificates of registrations made within five years after publication are considered as primary evidence of validity of copyright.  The determination as to whether a work entered the public domain before the effective date of the Copyright Act has to be made in accordance to the copyright laws that existed before that date.

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